Thursday, August 27, 2020
Composing Skills - Essay Example If all else fails, investigate models composed by expertsÃ¢â¬ (Hacker, 1996, p. 23). Albeit a few regions of the course were hard for me, I esteem these the most, on the grounds that I gained the most from them. A few zones of the course were simple for me which gave me some measure of certainty. The most troublesome piece of the course for me was figuring out how to mastermind my thoughts in a manner that indicated structure. At the point when I composed before this course, I would in general move between various irregular ideas. I would begin a school paper on charge strategy, and end up discussing the Iraq War, so that before the finish of the paper, nobody could determine what it was about. I discovered that it is conceivable, with the assistance of the course, to compose my thoughts better, and get a solid thought regarding my composition before I start it. Thusly, I am not simply going off on digressions: presently I keep plots and tail them. This was additionally the most troublesome piece of the course for me, as referenced, on the grounds that even now, I am enticed to dispatch into another thought, without sorting out it first. In any case, I believe that this zone of the course was one of extraordinary advancement for me. Perhaps the least demanding piece of the course for me was the genuine mechanics of composing. I realize that I am no language structure master, and my accentuation can now and again utilize a great deal of work. I am likewise inclined to composing run-on sentences. Be that as it may, when I began to contrast my composition and talk with a portion of different understudies, I found that I was experiencing much less difficulty with language structure and spelling than they were. I never truly had an issue with this region in school, and truth be told, a portion of my soonest instructors were enthusiastic about understudies charting sentences in an apparently unending way. Despite the fact that I didn't appreciate this as it was occurring, I think it gave me a strong establishment of language, and the capacity to string a sentence together. Generally speaking,
Posted by Collin Horne at 8:54 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Examine about the Sustainable Cocoa Production Shortage. Answer: Presentation The subject of world cocoa lack is standing out as truly newsworthy, disturbing the chocolate sweethearts just as the chocolate entrepreneurs. The development of chocolate is continually declining and this is stressing the cocoa ranchers and the business organizations who manage chocolate. From Peru, Mexico, Brazil to Ghana, Nigeria, Indonesia and Malaysia, this emergency is looked by each nation. Considering this disturbing reality, the cocoa ranchers are attempting their best to handle the circumstance. Aside from the ranchers, entrepreneurs are presently taking the counsel and recommendations of the researchers, as they accept science can resolve the issue by discovering some other option, a potential substitute of cocoa. In this way, the central target of the task is to introduce an article concerning the different interior and outside elements which are liable for the deficiency of cocoa development. With the assistance of the task, it will be conceivable to survey the means whi ch can be taken to check this circumstance in a successful way. PESTLE investigation on World Cocoa Shortage The PESTLE investigation is directed so as to know the different outer factors because of which the creation of cocoa has significantly declined. Political: Political components demonstrates that specific standards and guideline should be kept up by the Hershey organization concerning where it is leading its business. For instance, the organization needs to oblige to the standards and the guidelines made by the Dominican Republic, if the organization wishes to import cocoa from this area. Mexico, then again, is experiencing over the top medication managing which is influencing the current age of the organization (PICK et al. 2015, p.204). Therefore, the severe law should be followed in exchanging and business, notwithstanding, this has placed the organization in a fix as the guidelines of exchanging regularly get extremely brutal and risky. Thus, the organization faces inconvenience to work with this locale. Conservative: The issue of poor people economy is actually a reason for concern which goes about as one reason prompting a lack of cocoa development. Taking the instance of Dominican Republic, absence of solid economy prompts low efficiency, the chance of ranchers to get proficient preparing for cocoa cultivating is absent, influencing the creation rate. The state of Ghana and Nigeria regarding economy is very miserable, which is influencing the cocoa creation pace of these locales. Another pivotal factor, in Ghana the cash earned by ranchers is small, immaterial contrasted with the measure of work they offer, prompting loss of cultivating all the while (Harris, 2016, p.10). Social: In numerous spots, for example, Dominican Republican, absence of appropriate work is obvious, anyway regardless of this, ladies business is as yet not empowered in numerous regions. It seems as though it is the custom of that ladies ought not work in any event, when they are superbly ready to walk. Fortunately, in the contemporary occasions, ladies area of the populace are urged to accomplish work. Disregarding this positive situation, they despite everything need to go far, for example, they have to have training so as to have the fundamental thought of cultivating cocoa (Horne, 2015, p.6). Innovative: This factor takes a gander at the advancement viewpoint regarding having improved advances. In numerous spots, advancements are not appropriately utilized, or rather numerous specialists don't know use and bit of leeway of innovation. Brazil, for example, has detailed an obvious fall in its creation because of its conflicting climatic condition. The nation doesn't have the information or extent of appropriate innovation which 0can empower them to ensure and expand their pace of cocoa creation (Lebailly and Ahouissou, 2015, p.390). Legitimate: Various arrangements frequently go about as obstructions to compelling creation. Costs of chocolate beans are taking off high; then again, no arrangement is made concerning the prosperity of ranchers of cocoa creation, influencing the organization just as the poor ranchers (Ouya, 2014, p.29). Natural: This factor has gotten one of the significant explanation behind the cocoa lack. Because of unnecessary dry spell, precipitation, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Nigeria, Peru, Mexico are losing quite a bit of their cocoa efficiency. The atmosphere has gotten unacceptable for cocoa creation in numerous spots which should be thought of. The organization need to take help from science and ranchers also to handle this issue (Stuart, 2015, p.55). Watchman's five power investigation of Hershey's chocolate creation: On being exposed to investigation of Hershey chocolate organization it very well may be fundamentally discovered that different deciding components incorporating the inside and outer powers are led. Being an individual from the commission of Hershey it is the obligation to evaluate the developing issue of lack in an improvement of cocoa on the planet which can be distinguished through the utilization of the Porters five powers examination. This is considered as one of the best strategies to evaluate the territories that can altogether contribute towards the issue distinguished in the current situation. The world is confronted with the worldwide issue of having the deficiency in cocoa creation all through the world (Brew, 2014, p.23). The reasons working behind them can be successfully broke down through examining the powers endless supply of the main chocolate organizations concerning the world premise. The outside variables which envelop the five powers as hypothesized by Porter essentially centers upon the way that expanded rivalry in the market prompting a development of one of the significant explanations behind the development of the difficult consequently tended to. Dangers of new passage: The food and refreshment industry as it is known is one of the most benefit making ventures in the worldwide field. The new passageways in this industry need to confront a great deal of battle to fight up their situation in the market with the current organizations. The market entrance, for this situation, turns out to be very troublesome on their part. The foundation with a development arranged tendency is entangled. To manage since quite a while ago settled organizations, for example, Hershey the organization needs to make their items selective and appealing enough to draw the consideration of the clients (Mighty, 2017, p.72). Huge procedural techniques should be trailed by assembling the items. Government arrangements and guidelines should be satisfied alongside appropriate accreditation from the FDA before going into the chocolate business. In spite of the fact that the new doors may not end up being that solid as far as the built up organizations as that of Hershey, yet the current organizations do get influenced in certain angles to share an undermined deals result than without such organizations. Dangers of substitute merchandise: Concerning the present situation of the market, the greater part of the items particularly in the food and drink industry have a simple substitute accessible to catch the eye of the clients. The results of chocolate are believed to be recreated both in their bundling just as substance for beguiling the clients with a similarly lower cost and practicality approach. They may not basically win the confidence and trust of the individuals being all new in the market (Wessel and Quist-Wessel, 2015, p.5). Be that as it may, through the procedure of broad limited time methodologies and solid showcasing plans might have the option to build up their place in the market slowly with the progression of time. The more the items become adequate to the purchasers, the more noteworthy turns into the danger among the since a long time ago settled organizations, for example, Hershey. In this way the substitutes in the market will in general have a moderately solid eff ect on the organization viable in a negative way. This likewise considers a huge measure for the rising lack in the cocoa business because of the expanding creation of assorted specialists and organizations. Deal intensity of providers: Hershey supposedly adapts a non-bargaining demeanor as far as utilizing items substance for a readiness of their merchandise. The chocolates delivered by this organization are fundamentally known to utilize dairy fixings as the prime crude material; consequently the evaluation of the items produces turns out to be high in their gauges. The providers are found to have a decent connection with the organization. This training will in general set high bars as far as quality guidelines kept up by the organization which guarantees the clients request and fulfillment (Winders et al. 2016, p.81). Deal of clients: Due to the high accessibility of substitute items in the chocolate business with unique accentuation towards chocolate, it very well may be discovered that the clients will in general build up a high bartering disposition among them (Wessel and Quist-Wessel, 2015, p.5). Hershey, be that as it may, has had the option to conquer this hindrance by their advertising procedure of thinking of a wide scope of assortment of merchandise and items for their unwavering clients. This training has empowered in outperform the weakness presented by the substitute merchandise. Serious contention inside the business: an extreme serious atmosphere has been apparent concerning the chocolate business. It has been seen that Hershey has had the option to catch the eye of its dependable clients by acquiring advancements in the quality and taste as far as remembering new flavors for their wide scope of assortment (Stuart, 2015, p.32). Hershey is found to come out on top as far as creation of standard quality items. The competition in the market has been a dominating occasion, despite the fact that not having the option to influence this organization antagonistically. This condition of contention in the market will in general represent a danger focusing on the lack of chocolate on the planet showcase as it prompts making pressure upon the cocoa creation which is getting uncommon in the ongoing occasions (Green, 2016, p.45). This occasion prompts drawing consideration towards a worldwide concern which can be tended to by decreasing such rivalry and by limiting the p ace of riva
Posted by Collin Horne at 1:11 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Cold War was an overall clash that continued for more than 40 years. Numerous individuals today don't see the amount it cost as far as lives and cash. During the Cold War, numerous occasions helped shape todayÃ¢â¬â¢s United StateÃ¢â¬â¢s military, outside relations, and strategies. The Cuban Missile Crisis demonstrated that the US was a solid country. The Space Race helped innovation advance and permitted man to go where we had never been. Another notable clash was the Vietnam War, which began some time before the US got included. France lost the principal Indochina war to the Vietminh. Before long, Communist North Vietnam demonstrated enthusiasm for attacking Capitalist South Vietnam and the nation in the long run split in two. At that point, the US had political portrayal in South Vietnam. After the Gulf of Tonkin episode, the US military became activists and sent more than 50,000 soldiers to battle (Murray, 13). Those soldiers suffered abhorrences nobody could envision, inc luding new weapon advances, for example, Agent Orange and Napalm that were utilized to clear woods and battle. Back in the US, numerous individuals fought the war with rallies and walks. They had an explanation. The United States was not supported in entering the Vietnam strife since it caused more harm than progresses for the US. A wide range of individuals and nations were associated with the Vietnam strife. It started during WWII, when Japan took FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The socialist chief Ho Chi Minh drove powers called the Vietminh to battle Japan. These powers had been prepared by United States counselors. After JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s rout in WWII, France had focused on recapturing control of Indochina. At that point, Ho had just announced Vietnam free, however France wouldn't perceive... ...t the spreads of socialism. After the USS Maddox was assaulted in the Gulf of Tonkin, President Johnson sent military work force to battle. After all expectation appeared to be lost and individuals back home surrendered, President Nixon attempted to end things with a truce. Shockingly at long last, the US and South Vietnam lost to North Vietnam. The war end up being futile after all the devastation it caused. 58,214 troopers were executed and more than 1,700 are still unaccounted for (History Channel). From the earliest starting point of the war, there was very little expectation. The North Vietnamese were at that point certain about triumph. The very explanation the US entered the war was somewhat a result of deception. Had we known then that there was no subsequent assault coming in the Gulf of Tonkin, where might we be currently? Would the US be better in international strategies? Because of one misread signal, we will never know.
Posted by Collin Horne at 10:53 AM
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The first core value of social work is service. The purpose of service is to simply help those in need. It is our duty to find the help and support that individuals need in order to function properly, both individually and socially. Social workers have the ability to see potential in individuals and it is our job to help individuals find that potential. It is also our duty to address social issues. In order to do provide the services needed for individuals, social workers must use their own source of knowledge, values, and skills. Social workers will do all of these things willingly and with an open heart. With the service of a social worker, clients are also linked to other services. With having an interest in working with adoptionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In our society, the most noticeable form of social injustice would be found in our diverse towns, communities, and schools. Our society fails to recognize all of the unfairness in the way different diversities are treated. According to Michael Reisch, part of the reason that our social injustice is not being resolved, is because everyone has a different definition of what social justice is or should be. Individuals are fitting their definition of social justice to match their historical circumstances, and their hegemonic values. The third core value is dignity and worth of the person. Social workers know that each individual has meaning and they strive to seek out the best in each individual. They respect the individual for who they are. Social workers realize there are cultural differences in societies. They care for each individual, as they should be cared for. They strive to better the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem and determination. They help clients to address their own needs and focus on new opportunities. They seek to resolve client conflicts using ethical standards, principles, and values. An article that I found regarding dignity and worth of a person is an article based on homelessness. This article did not fail to point out that maintaining dignity, as a homeless person, is a difficult task to do. Dignity allows individuals to feel self-worth. Ã¢â¬Å"Invalidation of dignity led to feelings of worthlessness, passivity, and depressionÃ¢â¬ (Miller).
Posted by Collin Horne at 5:21 AM
Friday, May 15, 2020
Research Paper on Economic Indicator Analysis Economic Indicator Analysis CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Product and market structure The Microsoft Corporation is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s number 1 software company. Its two most popular products are the Windows operating system and Office software suite. Microsoft Corporation also manufactures gaming consoles Xbox, CRM supplications Microsoft Dynamics and digital music players Ã¢â¬â Zune. Over 50% of all Microsoft CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s sales are made in the U.S. (Hoovers, 2011). The XBox is a game console developed by the company in an attempt to tap into the lucrative global gaming industry. The Xbox 360 is an updated version of the original Xbox, and is considered to be of the seventh generation gaming consoles. The Xbox 360 was launched in year 2005 and it was received very well by the public as it completely sold out in all major parts of the world. In a fast developing and highly competitive world gaming market, it was crucial for the Xbox to be continuously improved upon. Hence, Microsoft decided in the year 2010 to introduce another not so different version of the Xbox 360 that would be slimmer and with more features than the former. A crucial feature added was the online connectivity option that allows gamers to compete with players across the globe in real time. Games can now directly be bought and downloaded from the internet to the console. In addition, users can access TV shows and music using the new multimedia feature of the XBox (Voets 2010). Some of the older versions of the Xbox 360 are fading from the market as more people embrace the newer version which has more features like the storage capacity that has been increased and more ports to accommodate other accessories that are compatible with the new version. The rise to fame of the products has not been easy due to stiff competition they have faced from other companies like Sony which is known for its version of a game console referred to as the PlayStation. Another company that has been competing with the MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Xbox 360 is the Nintendo Company which is known for the GameCube console that was brought into the market towards the end of the year 2001. Sega Company is also among the top three companies that compete for customers in the gaming industry and it has offered Microsoft Corporation stiff competition from the year 1999, when it was first introduced into the market its product named Dreamcast. Despite the fact that the launch of the Xbox 360 took place much later after some companies like the Sega had already accessed the market, it made headways in the market arena and ranked up to the second place taking into account the total number of units it had sold. It stayed ahead of other companies like Sega although it could not overtake Sony which had sold much more units. This it did and was made possible by the fact that Microsoft had other products already in the market like software and operating systems. This translated into the company having a solid financial standing which made it possible for the company to enter and penetrate the market that had already been tested and penetrated by its competitors. The XBox falls under the category of the seventh generation gaming consoles and one factor that made the product penetrate the market so deeply was the introduction of more features that had been added. Their compatibility with older Xbox accessories as well as entertainment systems made it easier for the product to be used and teamed with various electronic brands (Voets 2010). Another feature that has made the product do well in the market is the capability of being compatible with the famous series of Halo and Gears of war. These games have made the Microsoft Corporation make business headways even in times when the economy was not doing well. The games are loved all over the world and this increases the market breadth. Marketing Structure A market structure helps one understand the economic power of firms operating within in. Most importantly, it enables better understanding of the pricing power that firms hold over their own products. For instance, the uniqueness of a product leads o a higher entry barrier. Also, the larger the scale economy, the higher the pricing power of the firm will be. Firms that are based in a perfect competition market and sell homogenous products have barely any pricing power and the market decides the price of their product. On the contrary, firms based in a monopoly that are selling unique, rare or patented products can have near absolute pricing power, a factor that often leads to price discrimination. The markets in between monopoly and perfect competition are volatile, where firms can hold pricing power but need to exercise it with great caution. Figure 1 depicts the various market structures and the pricing power correlation: Figure 1: Market Structure and Pricing Power It is important to note that Xbox competes in an Oligopoly market, wherein price based competition seldom yields desired results. The 2007 gaming console price war can be used effectively to highlight this point. According to the BBC (BBC, 2007), the three gaming console giants made the following price alterations to beat competition: Microsoft cut the Japanese price of its Xbox 360 games console by 13% as it struggled to match sales of rivals Nintendo Wii Sony PlayStation 3 Sony also cut the cost of the PlayStation in the US introduced a cheaper version. Both the Xbox 360 PlayStation 3 were trailing behind sales of the Wii In the first half of 2007, Microsoft sold 122.565 units of Xbox 360 in Japan, compared with 503, 554 PlayStation 3 units 1.78 million of the Wii Comparing this data with the data given in Figure 6, it is clear that despite lowering prices of its console, Xbox was not able to regain the market share supremacy it held in 2006. The following points better explain important factors of an Oligopoly market: The industry is dominated by few large firms. In UK, definition of an oligopoly is a 5 firms concentration ratio of more than 50% Strategic behavior/ interdependence among firms. An oligopoly based firm will be affected by how other firms set their price output There are barriers to entry but less than monopoly Products sold are differentiated There are different types of market structures that define businesses. Some of the known examples are pure competition structure, price discrimination, oligopsony, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, monopsony and pure monopoly. All these are used to define the different structures that govern businesses across industries. In this context, it can be said the Xbox operates within an Oligopoly structure. This is demonstrated by the fact that there are not many companies that manufacture gaming consoles and have distribution networks across the globe. The presence of fewer companies dealing in similar products and services makes the market structure of the Microsoft Corporation an oligopoly. This is also supported by the fact that, before Microsoft Corporation decides to make any changes to the design, features or pricing of the Xbox, it has to pause and consider the actions that will be taken by its competitors. This is in line with an oligopoly structure where an a company or an orga nization has to take into great consideration what its competitors may decide to do once it has made the effort of introducing a new product or service into the market (Moffat 2011). In a monopoly marketing structure whereby the firm or company has nothing to fear before introducing a new product into the market arena for the single and mere fact that it is alone in the market. On the contrary, an organization or a company in an oligopoly market structure has to consider the repercussions of even minor changes being made to the product as this can easily lead to its competition getting an upper hand in the market. It may also consider collaborating to raise their profit margins through the use of obtaining a monopoly outcome. In all these market structures, there are other factors that dictate how much a company may make from the sales of its products. These factors include the supply and demand of the product. Supply can be termed as the total distribution of products that can be brought to the market by the producers. On the other hand, demand can be defined as what buyers are able to purchase. Demand is usually dictated by price if all other factors are constantly held, whereby increasing the price reduces the quantity of products demanded. Supply on the other hand can increase if a productÃ¢â¬â¢s price rises making the suppliers give more for sale. This can be represented using demand and supply curves. Price The law of demand states that when a demand of a certain commodity was low and everything else remained constant, the price of that commodity was high. When MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Xbox 360 was first introduced into the market, the demand was a bit low due to the high price that was associated with the gadgets especially for the first few years. This is well explained by the fact that other products from competing companies like the NintendoÃ¢â¬â¢s Wii and SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s PS3 were already in the market and they sold at relatively cheaper prices (Bishop 2006). Figure 3 represents the demand curve of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Xbox 360. The X- axis represents the quantity demanded in billions of Xbox 360 in a year. The Y axis represents the price in dollars per Xbox 360 console. The graph shows that when the Xbox 360 was introduced in the market, it was selling at a high price and the quantity of gadgets ordered was low. At this time the popularity of the Xbox was at its lowest. Bearing in mind that the introduction of a new product to the market requires much money for promotion, and the fact that the product was not popular in the market, this meant that not many people would order for it and this made the prices shoot up. Microsoft had also introduced the gadget at a higher price than the rest of the competitors so as to recover some of the money they used while manufacturing the consoles (Bishop 2006). But this high pricing initially reduced the demand of the product. Figure 3: The demand curve of Xbox 360: Figure 4 represents the shift in the demand curve post the price change: Figure 4: Shift in the demand curve post the price change: Figure 5 represents the supply curve of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Xbox 360. The X-axis represents the quantities of Xbox 360 supplied in billions while the Y-axis shows the price of the Xbox 360 per each box. From the graph, it is eminent that the more consoles were supplied, the higher the price was as shown for the Xbox 360. Figure 5: The supply curve of Xbox 360: Figure 6 represents the shift in the supply curve of the Xbox post the price change: Figure 6: Shift in the supply curve of the Xbox post the price change: Equilibrium is the condition that arises when quantity supplied and quantity demanded are equal. At equilibrium, the tendency for price to change is nil. When quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied at the current price, the condition is known as Shortage of Excess Demand. On the other hand, when quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded at the current price, the condition is known as Surplus or Excess Supply. Figure 7 represents the market equilibrium for the Xbox. The X-axis represents the Quantity of Xbox in billions while the Y-axis represents the Price per Xbox. The graph illustrates that, at the point of introduction, the Xbox 360 was heavily priced, at which point it had the lowest demand although the supply was high (Bishop, 2006). Eventually, as prices of the console were reduced, its demand increased while the manufacturers reduced the quantity supplied in order to control over production. According to the statistics, a price of US$ 350/- brings about the market equilibrium for the Xbox 360, wherein the demand and supply of the console are balanced. Figure 7: Supply-Demand Market Equilibrium of Xbox 360: Market Share Microsoft has managed to penetrate the market and in the process acquire a large market share although it has been facing stiff competition from companies like Nintendo and Sony who have been pushing the marketing of their products Wii and Playstation, respectively, into untapped markets as well as existing ones (Justin 2010). Figure 8 shows the rise and fall in global market share for the top three gaming consoles in the world. While Xbox 360 held a majority share in the year 2006 at 65%, it saw a sharp decline to 22% in 2007 and remained at that level till it witnesses a slight revival by the year 2010. In comparison, PS3 has seen a slow but steady growth from 2006 Ã¢â¬â 2010. On the other hand, Wii gained over 50% of the market share in 2007 and maintained it till a decline to 39% in 2010. Figure 8: Games Consoles: Global Market Shares In the year 2011, the worldwide sales figures of the three rivals stood at: Wii: 87.57 million as of 30th June 2011 (Nintendo, 2011) Xbox 360: 55 million as of 4th June 2011 PS3: 50 million as of 31st March 2011 (Sony, 2011) This growth in market share has been made possible by the strategy the Microsoft Corporation has devised of aggressively pricing their products. Another contributor to the growth in the market share is the popularity of the Halo games that has made the market competitive and expansive. The company has an average market share of 25 which mostly has been brought to existence by the wide variety of games on sale. These games have become very popular and some people are going to the extent of purchasing the Xbox 360 for the sole purpose of getting a chance to play the game and not because of the many advanced features that are accompanying the gadget. Although some of the MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s games may be expensive than those of the competitors, the trick lies in the fact that they (Microsoft) have a wider range of games to offer and therefore a loss is evaded by the great span offered to choose from. The popularity of the Xbox console and its gaming titles made it possible to penetrate th e market share. The HHI The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is used to assess and measure the concentration of competition in a market. It is usually derived by getting the squares of each of the competing organizations or firms in a particular market and then adding up the numbers that result. Taking the various market shares of each company, the HHI can be assessed. In the year 2009, the market shares for the three competing companies, namely; Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo had market shares of 26, 24 and 50 respectively in percentage. To get the HHI, these values are squared and then the summation of the result is attained as 262 + 242 + 502 = 3752. Therefore, from the summation of the squares of the market shares, we get the HHI which equals to 3752. The Featured Indicator An economic indicator is said to be a statistic that outlines how fairly the economy is behaving and is also used to predict the future trend in the economy. It can be used by companies to make knowledgeable business decisions by analyzing the market trends to predict future contingencies. An indicator can therefore fall under the category of any economic statistic like the GDP, the rate of unemployment or even the rate of inflation. Any of these indicators is important as it can be used to depict the pattern of economic growth and be used to gauge the future trend of the economy (Moffat 2011). Getting the right information concerning any business is of paramount importance as many decisions dealing with the overall welfare of a company or a business institution are determined by the type of information that has been deciphered from collected data. Indications projecting either a positive or a negative growth would in most instances contribute to the decisions of altering the strategies of investing that had been formulated before. The rate of unemployment is a good indicator that can be used to reveal how well or poor a particular country is doing. If too many people are losing their jobs, then chances would be the economy is not doing very well. This trend was particularly noted during the global economic recession of 2009, when companies around the world had to reduce their work force in order to cope with falling demands for products. Similarly, the rate of employment reveals whether a particular company or economy is doing well. From the consumer point of view, these indicators help organizations gauge the purchasing power of their target markets, enabling them to focus marketing efforts in areas where most sales may be expected. From an organizational perspective, these indicators reveal the financial standing of an organization to cope with fluctuating demand and supply ratios when compared to its competitors. Microsoft Corporation has been doing fairly well even at the time when the global economy is in turmoil due to the global recession mainly due to the popularity of the Xbox console which helped in raising revenue. Mindy Mount, the vice president and Chief Financial Officer of Microsofts Entertainment and Devices Division stated that the Xbox 360 stood gain from the economic recession than be impacted negatively. The main argument is that a bad economy makes every dollar more important, which means that Microsoft can push the Xbox 360, with its recent price cut, as the best value for money console on the market (Dumitrescu, 2008). According to the New York Times, Microsofts entertainment and devices, which includes the Xbox 360 video game console, Kinect game controller and the Zune music player, gained 60 percent to $1.94 billion. Kinect, a sensor that lets players interact with video games without having to hold a controller, did particularly well, selling 2.4 million units in the quarter. Customers bought 2.7 million Xbox 360s (New York Times, 2011). During a time when majo r corporations were cutting back jobs in order to stay afloat, the Xbox and its accessories enabled Microsoft to boost its revenues and minimize layoffs. The ability of the company seeking to employ additional people shows that it was making headways even in times of economic hardships and all this can be attributed to the popularity of Xbox 360. The indicator can also be used to measure the rate of inflation of a nation or an organization so as to get the real picture of whether a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy or a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s finance is doing well or not (The Economist 2007). A high rate in inflation means that the economy is not doing well and even the wages that the workers get may not be enough to cater for their needs as they may be required to pay more than expected for a particular good or service. High price of commodities can greatly reduce the purchasing power of consumers. Different macroeconomic variables are projected differently. Some of the Macroeconomic Variables are Inflation rate, the rate of unemployment and the Gross Domestic Product. In this scenario, the variable that has been looked at is the Unemployment rate Macroeconomic Variable whose data is usually released every month as it usually is a thorny issue that needs constant monitoring and quick action to prevent it from becoming a calamity if not acted upon. Figure 9 shows the number of employees that Microsoft Corporation employed for a period of over ten years which is a period to period annualized. These employees included both working in the domestic as well as global operations of the corporation. Those in the domestic sector were working at the Microsoft Headquarters in the RedmondÃ¢â¬â¢s West Campus as well as other locations in the various districts. These workers ranged from the subordinates to the Information Technology professionals and others who dealt with the Microsoft Products and services either online or otherwise. The graph shows the steady growth of a company in the sense that, even at the Puget Sound facilities, there were new employees each year and this shows that the company could manage to pay for the salaries and wages of the employees and therefore it was doing well (Bishop 2006). Achieving a continuous employment trend however small each year is quite an achievement and this shows that the company was making money from the sale of its products and it was feeling the need to seek the services of more so as to meet the demand in the market. In addition to the workers at Puget Sound, the company managed to employ other workers in the domestic sector. The employment trend has continued to manifest itself in the span of over ten years depicting an upward growth which is good for business (Bishop 2006). Microsoft Corporation also expanded its overseas operations, recruiting workers and staff across all functions and departments in the process. By the year 2005, the company had employed quite a large number of workers resulting in a substantial gap between the domestic and international workforce ratios. This can be attributed to the need arising from customers to use the new products and this meant employing more people to meet the demand in the market and not to risk losing customers to the competitors (Bishop 2006). Figure 10 represents the Estimated Market Share of the three companies presented in dollars. The horizontal axis in the graph represents a period of three years while the vertical axis represents the market share in percentages. The graph represents an overview of the competition in the market among the three companies bearing in mind that they deal in similar products and services. In the year 2007, Nintendo Company amassed a larger portion of the market share than the other competitors mainly due to its pricing strategy whereby many of its products and services were going at a lower price than what was being offered by either Microsoft or Sony. Microsoft Corporation managed a market share of 28 percent in the same year finishing the year in the third position in terms of the market share. Although Xbox had a robust financial backing available mainly from Microsoft CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s other offerings, it could not attain a large market share as the console was priced higher than its competitors. Needless to say, considering that features offered by all the competing consoles were more or less the same, price was the determining factor for consumer purchases. In the year 2008, Nintendo led the other companies for the second time amassing a market share of 47 percent from a possible hundred. This was nearly half the total market share and this can be attributed to the pricing strategy that the company was using to market its Wii product. Nintendo Company ensured that their product was unique from competitors in its user friendliness, highly interactive interface and was made using state of the art technology including wireless controllers (Justin 2010). Such focus on quality and innovation greatly increased the popularity of Wii, leading to a greater market share for Nintendo. Sony was placed second in terms of the market share as it marketed its Playstation console on the basis of prices that were lower than that of the Xbox 360. Hence, it can be said that Xbox 360 lagged both, in features as well as pricing, which limited its market presence. In the year 2009, Nintendo further increased its market by lowering the prices of Wii despite its obvious popularity among gamers. This ensured that Nintendo won over consumers who were buying competing consoles based on their prices. Wii sales were further aided by a favorable exchange rate that surprised the company when shipping out the software to other parts of the world. Hence, Nintendo was able to secure over 50% of the global market share. This was nearly two times the market share that had been amassed by the Xbox which could only manage about 24 percent of the market share (Justin 2010). If this trend continues, Nintendo may soon amass over 60 percent of the market share especially if it continues to make unique gaming products that may attract a lot of enthusiasm and make them more popular than the ones offered by Playstation and Xbox 360. They also have an advantage as they have built up a great deal of goodwill amongst gamers by providing state of the art services and products for several consecutive years. Hence, consumers now perceive Nintendo to be better than its competitors, a trend that will be hard to break by the Xbox. The other companies will have to devise ways of dealing with such kind of competition if they want to remain relevant in the market. Description of the behavior of the indicator The behavior of the indicator for the last six months has been on an upward trend in most parts of the country which is mostly attributed to the rising cases of inflation and a weakened dollar. The rate of unemployment nationally is well beyond nine percent. But this is not the only problem here. There is an underlying problem especially in the Microsoft Corporation whereby, they are in need of thousands of Information Technology workers to fill some vacant positions so as to continue serving the community at large. This shows a situation where chances are available in the company but the stumbling block is the lack of qualified personnel to fill the vacant positions. There is a chance that the market of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services will rise irrespective of the general overview of the economy due to the unrelenting efforts of the company to introduce new products and services in the market. Microsoft has plans to continue opening other branches in the world due to the popularity the Xbox 360 is gaining. This will continue to heighten competition as top talent from the IT and gaming field will look for employment at what is considered to be the top software and IT company in the world. If the current trend is anything to go by, the next releases will push the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s returns on investment higher. It may be possible for the company to raise the market share a great deal as well as increasing the revenue if it uses the same tactics that it has been using for a while so as to minimize the gap in the market share usually dictated by the bigger company. Microsoft had used a technique earlier whereby it reduced the prices of its products and services and this paved way for a great magnitude of competition (Bishop 2006). By reducing the prices, it made sure that more people now were at liberty of purchasing the products, hence, increasing its market share in the gaming industry. The rising market share would in turn bring about greater returns and drive larger sale volumes. Further profits can be then expected from the sale of gaming titles as well as Xbox accessories. Business cycle A business cycle is a period during which a business, an industry or the entire economy expands and contracts. Business cycles can vary in intensity and duration. While economic booms and busts affect a broad spectrum of industries, every company can have its own business cycle. If one considers the GDP of a country as an indicator of economic standing, then the business or economic cycles can be explained as: a)Expansion: when the GDP is constantly increasing, b) Peak: the highest point of growth reached during a cycle, c) Contraction: when the GDP begins to fall due to various factors such as high inflation, and d) Trough: The lowest point reached by the GDP before its begins a recovery leading to expansion again (Moffat 2011). Figure 12 graphically depicts the typical business cycle: The Xbox can be said to be in a state of contraction. The consoleÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity had witnessed an expansion as consumers became aware of its compatibility with various home entertainment systems and well as the massive fame of the Halo series of gaming titles. However, soon after Nintendo introduced the Wii with wireless controllers, its popularity sky-rocketed, triggering the contraction phase of XboxÃ¢â¬â¢s business cycle. Such lags in the indicator takes time to recover until the economy and unemployment rates stabilize and the purchasing power of consumers increases again. The progress of the MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Xbox 360 does not necessarily mean that it may start employing new workers immediately as there has to be other factors to be considered like the overall return on investments. The Federal Reserve has the mandate to come up with the policies concerning money at the national level. This is to make sure the prices remain stable, to maintain the set objectives of attaining employment to the maximum and maintaining rates of interests on a long term base and making sure that these rates are moderate (BGFRS 2002). Any change in the rates of interests on the short term base may ignite the interest rates on the long term base like the auto loans and the treasury notes, while a change in the rates of interest on the long term bases would change the prices of stock which in turn can affect household items. It is therefore necessary to maintain a balance in the short and longÃ¢â¬âterm rates of interests. My personal forecast of the report is that a drop in the rates of long term interests may encourage people to invest in the hope that profits will increase in the future and hence increasing the prices of equity. This decrease in interest rates may lead to a low value of exchange for the dollar which may, in turn, lead to low costs of financing making people desire to invest due to low costs of financing projects hoping to reap later in the future when prices may be high. References Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (2002). The Federal Reserve System Purposes and Functions. Washington, D.C.: Books for Business. Bishop T. (2006, July 26). Microsoft employment soars. Seattle pi. Retrieved from http://blog.seattlepi.com/microsoft/2006/07/26/microsoft-employment-soars/ The Economist. (2007). Guide to economic indicators: making sense of economics. New York, NY: Bloomberg Press. Voets, A. (2010). How to Reduce Costs and Increase Market Share through Rationalization of the Design Process of Products: Rationalization, Design Process. Norderstedt Germany: GRIN Verlag. Moffat, M. (2011, July 29). A Beginners Guide to Economic Indicators. Retrieved from http://economics.about.com/cs/businesscycles/a/economic_ind.html Justin. (2010, Jan 18). Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft estimated revenue and US marketshare. Retrieved from http://gamerinvestments.com/video-game-stocks/index.php/2010/01/18/nintendo-sony-and-microsoft-estimated-revenue-and-us-marketshare/ Sony. (2011, Mar 15). Playstation 3 Sales Reach 50 million units worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/release/110415_e.html Nintendo. (2011, Jul 28). Consolidated Sales Transition by Region. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Console_wars#Worldwide_sales_figures_6 Hoovers. (2011, Aug 2). Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved From http://www.hoovers.com/company/Microsoft_Corporation/rcrtif-1.html Dumitrescu, A. (2008, Nov 18) Xbox 360 is Recession-Proof. Retrieved from http://news.softpedia.com/news/Xbox-360-Is-Recession-Proof-98041.shtml New York Times (2011, Apr 28). Xbox, Kinect sales power Microsoft earnings. Retrieved from http://www.startribune.com/business/120928484.html
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Critique of Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership without perspective and point of view isnÃ¢â¬â¢t leadership-and of course it must be your own perspective, your own point of view. You cannot borrow a point of view any more than you can borrow someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. It must be authentic, and if it is, it will be original, because you are originalÃ¢â¬ . (Bennis, 1992, p.122) Introduction This paper assesses two popular leadership theories: Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership. It further looks at the criticisms that are pitched against both theories. Extra emphasis will be placed on the criticisms that challenge both theories on the basis of certain flaws that are considered fundamental. It furtherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Transformational leadership demands for productivity from its followers without coming out right to reward actions however at the end of every self-evaluation and ability to transcend above oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self interest, a follower will perform more at his workplace which will increase productivity output and could lead to unsolicited rewards from employers. However many critics have come up to explain the difference that alienates one from the other, both theories juxtapose one another in such a way that one theory leans towards the other at the end and both leaders want same thing from the employee: optimum performance. Bass et al, 1999 argues that Ã¢â¬Å"to be truly transformational, leadership must be grounded in moral foundationsÃ¢â¬ . Wren et 1998 also believe the Ã¢â¬Å"ethics of transformational leadership rests upon three pillars; the moral character of the leader, the ethical legitimacy of the values embedded in the leaders vision, articulation, and program which followers either embrace or reject and the morality of the processes of social ethical choice and actions that leaders and followers engage in and collectively pursueÃ¢â¬ . Bass et al, 1988 believes that while transformational leadership models are grounded world view of self-interest of leaders even though some ethicists still believe exclusive pursuit of self-interest isShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Leadership Characteristics On Pediatric Registered Nurses Job Satisfaction844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch Critique: Effects of Leadership Characteristics on Pediatric Registered NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ Job Satisfaction Nursing job satisfaction continues to rank high as an area of concern for Nurse Executives. 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However, it can be difficult to distinguish different success factors responsible for effectiveRead MoreThe Classic Greek Discourse On Leadership Essay1948 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Classic Greek discourse on leadership projected leaders as the superior being, not only are they intellectually and physically blessed, but combined with their willpower and self-discipline, their eloquent and ebullient self-expression, and their passion to excel makes their prevalence rare. Along with such attributes the depiction of a leader constructed in this discourse is expected to be moral, just, humble and honorable and work toward the best interest of the followers who seek guidance
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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write about theTelstra Global Enterprise. Answer: Telstra is one of the world's driving provider of computerized machines and media. The organization was established by Andy Penn in 1975 as an exchanging organization. Telstra at first had practical experience in sending out Korean fish and vegetables to Beijing and Manchuria. The organization reformed later to have its own candy store machines and flour factories. The organization in 1990, with the advancement of innovation entered the worldwide market with hardware and semi-conductors turning into the significant income source. Telstra which implies three stars in Korea held a similar name all through the development. The organization which is presently connected with enormous tech organizations like Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Vodafone works in eighty nations with more than 300,000 representatives. The organization always concentrate on innovative work which has prompted item enhancement ( Ross, 2015). Telstra principle target is to make life less demanding for its clients. The organization's items are intended to serves diverse statistic profiles. The showcasing likewise considers individuals clients of various financial status. This operation methodology has helped the brand to flourish and get a greater client share the brand contemplates it clients and utilize distinctive methods to catch everybody's consideration. The promotion is the significant showcasing technique utilized by the organization. The promotions are intended to highlight new items been discharged in the market. The ad is utilized to gage the client's impression of the item and through this they can know how the item will perform in the market. The Telstra operation administration has strategized by defined a few arrangements which includes delivering items that will catch the consideration of the purchasers. This is the primary period of this procedure. Once the organization has caught the consideration of the customers by the new line of item now they concentrate on how they will make the group of onlookers get keen on obtaining the item. Since the memory of the item is still crisp the organization now goes for keeping up a similar quality standard that they can accomplish which will for the most part be founded on the dependable buyers they pick up from the start of the item. The fundamental goal of the operation administration is to keep Telstra steady and solid. The organization is steady when the profits of the benefits surpass the operation expenses of the item. The operation administration group guarantee the items are performing great in the market. They make the organization solid by making top of the line items and the extras promptly accessible for the costumer to keep them happy with the item. The operations administration likewise guarantees high caliber of the item, usability of the item as far as capacities and employments. This will give clients fulfillment when they get the item. The other target of the operation administration group is to build deals and the benefits of the organization. Expanding deals is through publicizing to the potential customers and keeping up great relations between the purchasers and the organization. The operations group must keep up the organization's notoriety high as one of the main suppliers of computerized media. The organization has had some expertise in enhancement of items they have accomplished this in little scale as well as in expansive scale. They have worldwide customers everywhere throughout the world .The are referred to for computerized media as well as in LCD arrange, semi-conductors, broadcast communications, advanced apparatuses and globalization. In computerized media there is a considerable measure of rivalry henceforth to keep Telstra stable the group has connected distinctive innovations and plan on their items to make them novel yet quality. The group has not just built up their item through innovative work additionally centered on business administration and generation keep up the benefit of the organization. Telstra has branches in most significant urban communities on the planet. This is advertising technique of achieving numerous clients in their own particular safe place. They tweak their items as per the clients require. Their item targets distinctive conservative class of peple. They have items for everybody in the general public and that is the fundamental reason Telstra does well on the planet. Dissimilar to different organizations like Vodafone that make costly items which a few customers can't bear. This how Telstra has flourished with its broadening of item and keeping up great relations with the buyers. Telstra creates hard product and furthermore its parts of which it helps it pick up preferred standpoint over its rivals by pitching this segments to them. Some portable organizations like Vodafone purchase the part from Telstra. Telstra ebb and flow operation technique incorporate Research and improvement, Procurement, Manufacturing, coordinations, deals, and after administrations. In innovative work Telstra has committed around 10% of its income to innovative work. Very nearly 33% of its worker work in the innovative work to think of new market patterns and plans to set new principles in the market. Investigate has demonstrated that Vodafone spend around 3 % of its income in research thus Telstra for the most part rely on upon the exploration to remain in front of it contenders. In acquisition the organization outsources its generation to China where the work is shoddy. The organization diminishes work cost which lessens the cost of creation. They then offer the items at market cost thus giving them a decent overall revenue. This empowers them to be aggressive in the market as far as expenses and deals. Most Telstra items are less expensive than different brands in the market because of this operation proce dure. In assembling the organization has flourished because of capacity of understanding the market, emulating and enhancing the contender's item. Telstra has been known for emulating its rivals' items however fortify and enhance the item beating the contenders unexpectedly. They can fabricate items rapidly and can make incremental upgrades on items inside a brief timeframe. In coordinations Telstra has deliberately set its branches in various nations to help in the dissemination of its items. They have begun of the craftsmanship conveyance vehicles with prepared conveyance work force. They have versatile trackers which track the items progressively. The organization utilize powerful conveyance plans and streamline courses which help in conveying the items on time to the assigned buyers. They have efficient work process that empower them to monitor parts and items as they are transported to the whole store network. The organization is centered on keeping up amazing products while using the new patterns and innovation. Through this technique they anticipate that the organization will expand its net revenues a seemingly endless amount of time since their principle goal is to reach $400 billion deals by the year 2020.The organization has differentiated organizations in various segment, for example, plant development, mold, petrochemicals , back, drug, inns and high rise. They have settled the organization through this enhancement of their items. Telstra stays among the worldwide pioneer in hardware creation and computerized media. Telstra is notable for their after deals benefits particularly in fast reaction in managing customers o n the utilization of the items .Their target it to address purchaser issues. The purchaser reliably foresees that the cost will be lower, yet it is hard for the PDAs associations, for instance, Telstra to be unobtrusive in light of the era cost especially the work cost. The Galaxy S line is not terrible, yet rather its components make it defended, in spite of all the inconvenience. Another variable that affects client decision of the phone is the availability of information to the clients. Most consumers have the opportunity to differentiate the S brand and other Telstra lines or it break even with other competitiors, for instance, an iPhone. The Telstra S has irregular shape of metallic which comes with an OLED shape, which will attract the consumers eyes. Angry Competition from various other brands such HP, LG and IPhone has given the buyer an inconceivable collection of things to investigate in the market. The Telstra has made a brand dedication to the clienteles by guaranteeing the phone is esteemed successfully, premium quality and amazing execution. These segments engage the phone to stay ahead of the rest inside the wireless segment. In the mobile phone industry, there are factors which influence the client essential attention toward the product. The appearance and the design of the phone is important since the phones can be customized to differentiate it from the rest. The taxes can sometimes affect the profit margin, especially when shipping which can impact the market cost especially in up-coming countries where the organization has branches. Customization not be required since the all-inclusive community use the phone for their basic needs. Telstra vanquished this test by fusing itself into new countries and markets through improvement of the network . The association has particular brands, which consider the inside and first class buyers. Social segments consolidate developing where the developing masses impacts the demand of the line. The adolescents can't endure the cost of awesome PDAs, in any case they are the ones aware of the new advancement. The developers who have sufficient cash to obtain the top no tch phones need to use less convoluted phones. Telstra has combined in such a market by offering and advancing their things completely. Through this Telstra can check the demand hole made by the developing masses. Customers buy mobile phones generally as a result of their individual needs or calling. Most models or TV characters require mobile phones with awesome camera optics and extraordinary execution as a result of their slant of their work. Distinctive reasons for living like the IT client would require a mobile phone with an OK processor and speed and enough memory to store data. Telstra has isolated their things by making differing mobile phones astounding in a particular segment or shape. The Telstra brand has awesome cameras especially the rear one which can make incredible pictures. The mobile phone was made to check certain class or was expected to target particular specialists. Telstra brand goes with countless applications and games which you can download from the Telstra store or get an arrangement of free applications given in the Telstra Hub. These components being faithfulness to the brand since the proprietor of the PDAs can get to the organizations in vain. The parts and the unrestrained applications can construct unwaveringness and reliance on the client in this manner each time they require a mobile phone they will look for a Telstra universe. These are the mental components affect the mobile phone customers. As showed by research of leadership of necessities, a Smartphone this days is a basic need since an extensive part of the grownups contribute 80% of their vitality with their phone. The Telstra has stand-out components and applications, which are expected to make work less complex for the customers. You can email call, send messages, check bank account, record notes both in audio or videos, store and share information. The Telstra is easily advantageous and is both dustproof and waterproof. In this period, a Smartphone has advanced toward turning into our best friend and we depend up on it through our day to day activity hence becoming part of us. It can run various errands instead of moving like ordering pizza and paying bills. The Telstra network is growing rapidly and expanding. The network can provide various networking services which has made it stand out from other network, they are making enough profit to enable them to expand and sustain themselves. (Scannell, 2015). References You, J. (2015). Legal perspectives on corporate social responsibility: Lessons from the United States and Korea. Song, C., Yi, K. (2014). The Telstraway: Transformational management strategies from the world leader in innovation and design. Mahadevan, B. (2009). Operations management: Theory and practice. New Delhi: Published by Dorling Kindersley (India), licensees of Pearson Education in South Asia. Chloe, Y. (2008). Dynamic techno-management capability: The case of Telstrasemiconductor sector in Korea. Alders hot [u.a.: Avebury. Michell, T. (2010). TelstraElectronics and the struggle for leadership of the electronics industry. Singapore: Wiley. Hill, C. W. L., Jones, G. R. (2008). Strategic management: An integrated approach. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chang, S.-J. (2011).: The inside Story of the Electronics Giants' Battle for Global Supremacy. Hoboken: John Wiley Sons. In Panagopoulos, A. D. (2016). Handbook of research on next generation mobile communication systems Roll, M. (2006). Asian brand strategy: How Asia builds strong brands. Basingstoke [England: Palgrave Macmillan. Lee, D. (2006). TelstraElectronics: The Global Inc. Seoul, Korea: YSM, Inc. Hughes, B. (2011). TelstraGalaxy. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley Pub. Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2013.Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge. Cavusgil, S.T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J.R., Rammal, H.G. and Rose, E.L., 2014.International business. Pearson Australia. Chen, J.E., Pan, S.L. and Ouyang, T.H., 2014. Routine reconfiguration in traditional companies-commerce strategy implementation: A trajectory perspective.Information Management,51(2), pp.270-282. Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014.Organization development and change. Cengage learning. Hajli, M.N., 2014. The role of social support on relationship quality and social commerce.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,87, pp.17-27. Maity, M. and Dass, M., 2014. Consumer decision-making across modern and traditional channels: E-commerce, m-commerce, in-store.Decision Support Systems,61, pp.34-46. Xiao, T., Choi, T.M. and Cheng, T.C.E., 2014. Product variety and channel structure strategy for a retailer-Stackelberg supply chain.European Journal of Operational Research,233(1), pp.114-124. Mata, F.J. and Quesada, A., 2014. Web 2.0, social networks and e-commerce as marketing tools.Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research,9(1), pp.56-69. Savrul, M., Incekara, A. and Sener, S., 2014. The Potential of E-commerce for SMEs in a Globalizing Business Environment.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,150, pp.35-45. Serrano, E., Such, J.M., Bota, J.A. and Garca-Fornes, A., 2014. Strategies for avoiding preference profiling in agent-based e-commerce environments. Applied intelligence,40(1), pp.127-142.
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